Some forty years before the discovery of the Pazyryk carpet (1906, 1908) Sir Marc Aurel Stein and Alfred von Le Coq found some knotted-carpet fragments during their
excavations in a grave shaft in Lou-lan and in a Buddhist stupa shrine at Lop-nor in East Turkestan. These pieces date from the 3rd to the 6th century AD and are another link in the history of carpet development. Tie Lou-lan wo
Mutter und Tochter" heißt im Persischen die Art, zwei Medaillons ineinanderdarzustellen. In dem hier abgebildeten Hereke gibt es sogar noch eine „Großmutter". Hier geht ein Medaillon aus dem anderen hervor und präsentiert uns eine wohlgestaltete Konzeption des Mittelfeldes. Nicht nur Seide wurde zum Knüpfen dieses Hereke verwendet, sondern auch Gold- und Silberfäden, deren pha
HEREKE, hier in arabischen Schriftzeichen in der linken, unteren Ecke eingeknüpft, ist ein Synonym für erlesene Qualität und stilvolle Tradition. Beständig hat diese Provenienz in den letzten Jahren von sich reden gemacht und immer war Bewunderung herauszuspüren. - Bewunderung nicht zuletzt für die vollendete Formgestaltung, wie man es hier in dem neben-stehenden Teppich sehen kann. Daß wir, wi
Im Islam wird die Schönschreibeschrift (Kalligraphie) als selbständige Kunst gepflegt. Durch das Verbot der Menschendarstellung in dieser Glaubens- lehre entwickelte sich daraus ein wichtiges Schmuckelement - wie die Gestaltung der prächtigen Borte mit Versen des Dichters Omar Chajam in diesem seidenen Hereke beweist. Die dezenten Kartuschen tragen auf sandfarbenem Fond kunstvoll geschwun-gene
Der Storch, im Orient als Sinnbild langen Lebens beliebt, schmückt die untere Mitte des Mihrabs in diesem extrem feingeknüpften Hereke aus reiner Seide. Eine Vielzahl anderer Vogelarten formen, das Geäst von Lebens- bäumen zierend, ein höchst
anziehendes Gebetsfeld. Den Gesetzen des symmetrischen Aufbaus folgend, sitzen sie
sich jeweils paarweise gegenüber. Die Pracht der Omamente wir
Harmonie ist der wichtigste Leitbegriff der islamischen Kunst. Im harmonischen Omament ist wohl das zentrale Symbol dieser Kultur und Religion zu erkennen. Das stetige Bemühen, vollkommene Schönheit zuschaffen, zeigt sich auch in diesem subtilen Seiden-Hereke. Arabesken, schon seit dem 11. Jahrhundert das vorherrschende Dekorationselement des Islam, bedecken hier fast den ganzen Teppich. Kunstv
End of 18th century about 3 ft. 3 in.by5ft.3 in.
Stylised blossoms in varying colours are enclosed in each of the serrated lozenges which cover the
magnificent saffron yellow ground. The most interesting thing about the rug is the design of the white border. A light blue, staff-like line can be seen, around which twine broad "S" motifs, similar to the motifs of the “bird's head" ca
2 ft. 7 in .by 5 ft . 2 in.
Only seldom do prayer rugs of such outstanding beauty come from Dagestan. The
attraction lies in the perfect combination of fine pastel shades. The rug depicted here,
however, is one example. The colours for the geometrical, stylised flowers on a white
ground are beautifully blended, and a charming contrast is afforded by the cochineal red
7ft. 5in. by 15ft. 3in.
The cochineal red ground is covered by seven rows of large“S"-shaped ornaments, four
to each row, alternating in white and dark blue. These ornaments represent stylised
dragons. At the lower end of the "S" figures feet can be seen to protrude. The motifs are
filled with small, multicoloured &quo
One of the most popular rug type is known as Kilim rug, the best and most widely known kilims in our country are those reflecting a tradition peculiar to themselves. These are woven by sheep raising nomads, from yarns made either from wool or goat’s hair. This kilims are woven as sacks and saddle-bags for the purpose of carrying provisions, in ornamenting houses and tents, and as a cover for cr
In the case of Uşak carpets we find that the later examples of the 16th and 17th centuries show a natural, continuous development in the changing art and technique of textiles. The Uşak medallion carpets, generally accepted as the more important of the two types, exhibit a further development during the course of the 18th century, that of reaching a length of nearly 10 meters. In these long car
The second great period for Turkish carpets following that of the Seljuk era began in the 16th century in Uşak and its surroundings. This most famous and largest group of carpets, although frequently painted by European artists and highly esteemed in Europe until the end of the 18th century, was recognized merely as Turkish carpets in inventory records. The name Uşak for these carpet
Kurt Erdmann was the first to undertake the work of evaluation of the carpets of this period by unearthing examples of animal-figured carpets in various regions and then carrying out the dating of them. He placed them in a two- century period, from the beginning of the 14th to the end of the 15th century. This was based on the depiction of these carpets in the paintings and frescoes of European
Historically the second group of carpets that is most important after the Selçuk carpets are those known as the animal-figured Anatolian carpets. We assume that some figured carpets must have been produced by the Selçuks of Anatolia since in so many ways their palaces display in artistic expression a rich variety of figured representations. It would be hard to think that these were not carried
In 1935-36 about one hundred fragments --some Selçuk in origin-- were discovered at Fostat and taken to Sweden by C.J. Lamm. Many of these are still to be found in the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm; one is in Gothenburg and others are in Lamm's private collection. A large number have also been acquired by other museums: the Benaki Museum, Athens; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; the Islami
The art of knotted-carpets is a gift of the Turks to world civilization; its history through the centuries is woven into the fabric of Turkish culture. Since its basic material is wool, carpet weaving is an activity of sheep raising communities. And in fact the word "sheep'" (koyun) has often been incorporated into some of the famous names of Turkish tribes, for example, the Karakoyunlu and the
The largest rug weaving centre of Caucasus is situated in the KUBA area. Practically the entire population is occupied in rug weaving. Kuba itself is near the Caspian Sea, approximately half way between Derbend and Baku. In contrast to the rugs woven in the South Caucasus, the products of the Kuba area possess different structural features. Basically, naturel coloured wool is used for the warps
To the West and North-west of Talish lies the Moghan Steppe, where extremely fine rugs are produced . They are not unlike Talish rugs but differ in that they have a mainly cochineal red ground. The design consist of a central field with small medallions surrounded by blossom heads arranged in s
The most southerly district on the Caspian Sea, in which rugs are produced,is TALİSH. These rugs always have a woollen warp and the weft is natural coloured or red,but sometimes also dyed blue.The ends are like those of Kazaks. The edges are especially interesting.Two or three warp threads are bound with wool,but additionalshort weft 2-3cms. long are inserted towards the centre of the rug to st
To the South -west of Kuba, surrounded by Gendje, Karabagh and Baku is the Shirvan district. Rug production of this area is prolific. Fine Shirvans are very similar to Kubas in design and colour, but the followings characteristics differentiate between the two types. Rugs from the Shirvan area always have a brown woollen warp, or brown mixed with white.
In old pieces the weft is woollen
The design and ornament serve only as a last indication for the origin of the Caucasian carpet. Originally the ornaments were probably derived from symbols denoting happiness, power, light, home, and so forth. In addition to these one finds things of everyday lif
The enjoyment of these works of art starts with the colours. In this book we shall restrict ourselves to those carpets which are still dyed with natural dyes. The expression '' vegetable dyes’’, commonly heard in the trade, is inexact, for many dyes are animal and even mineral dyes. The principal colours which are met with in Caucasian carpets are:
Madder: Taken from the root of the mad
Caucasian carpets enjoy universal popularity, and justifiably so. Their harmony of colour, their fineness, and robust, geometrical designs appeal to our western taste. The austere, well – balanced arrangement of the pattern not only blends admirably with modern furnishings, but also ac
The original carpets discovered in Konya’s Alaeddin Mosque dating from the first half of the 13th century are products of Seljuk Anatolia and show the development in pile carpet making up to that period. They have also come to be considered as prototypes for all post – Seljuk carpets. The details of their origins still are a matter of speculation.
Until 1905 none of the visit
The next links in the historical development are the carpets founding Fostat, Egypt. The study of them points out the fact that some had been brought to Egypt from Samarra where Turkish guards were in the service of the Islamic state. Of this total find, twenty-nine fragments were published by Karl Lamm.
In addition to the woven pile rugs described above, tapestry woven rugs are also produced in the Caucasus. In this type of rug the wool thread which forms the design is drawn over one or more warp threads, and is then either secured flat in the warp itself or is left to hang freely from the back of the piece. The reverse side is therefore similar to a shaggy hide. The following types are are di
Milas, the district of Mugla, is an old carpet center and continues to be so, both Milas itself and its villages.
Milas carpets are easily recognized with their vigorous and bright colours, different mihrapfigures, long naps and fringes, and constitute the most important
The Gendje area lies surrounded by the Kazak area, Karabagh and Shirvan. The railway line from Tiflis to Baku passes through it, and Gendje, being a stopping-place for caravans, was a collecting point for all the products woven in its surroundings. To-day the town is called Elizabethpol. As most of the rugs are wo
Between the black and Caspian seas, in art of the knotted rug is as old as it is in neighboring Turkestan. The Turki tribes known as rugmakers appear in the Trancaucaucasus in the closing centuries of antiquity. We know, for instance, that the Avar tribe of the Lesghains established a kingdom in Daghestan (Avaristan) that, after the domination of the Huns, exenteded from the fifth to the ninth
Ever since the Renaissance, many Westerners have been keenly interested in the Oriental rug. They have made every effort to obtain rare, if not unique, specimens. Acoording to some accounts, Roman aristocrats of Caesar's time collocted these precious objects in large numbers. Even at that time it was possible to obtain such rugs, not only through the intermediary of the Roman legions stationed
When we say "a genuine rug," we obviously mean that there distinction to be drawn between handmade and machine made rugs; at the same time we do not clearly indicate that we refer only to the Oriental rug. Since it has been known so long and so widely, it is strange that the Oriental rug has never been viewed in the right sense when it comes to the essence of this work of art. As far as techniq
The ornamentation of Oriental rugs is based on ancient traditional rules having to do with the arrangement of spaces. Learning these rules will familiarize us with every kind of design. First, the rug is divided into field and borders. The field surface is also called the ground. Since all the design systems are based on yheir geometric arrangement of the field, it is possible to analyze the de
Without the uique effect of its colors, the Oriental rug would have far lesss special beauty and artistic worth. The richness of its coloring is expressed not in the number of colors but above all in their quality and composition, often limited of the contrasting of four to eight colors. The sumptuous colors of Oriental rugs have long been a marvel. They stimulated Renaissance artists to a new
Knotted rugs of fragments of them found in archaeological digs have shown that all the techniques of the knot, even the subtlest, as well as the decoration and coloring of rugs had already reached a high degree of perfection during the first millennium. It is all the more surprising that a vast selection of handmade Oriental rugs should appear on the markets of the industrial countries, even in
For the kilim (woven matting) weaving, within a limited space where the draw designs are placed, a color waft passed across a perpendicular double row threads at the back and front, from the bottom and top parts, reaching are the border of another design and returning back from its limits. The motive is emerged by means of return movement of different color wefts between the warps. Ingrained ha
Beside many groups that are only half settled and still continuing existents, an important group that have never changed their nomadic lifestyle can still be observed in east, south, southeast and west Anatolia (Asian part of Turkey; ancient Asia Minor).Basing on that, the fact that the traditions, customs, ethics and moral values are still cap alive, has enabled the cultural motifs of the nom
The motif of Yarkand rugs is the pomegranate, either on a arabesque of branches or in network of lozenge shape. Other types have three large medallions in a circle with complementary ornamentation. Aside from these, Yarkand rugs resemble Khotan rugs in all particulars.
Since the middle of the nineteenth century, Chinese rugs have been produced in Peking, Tientsin, and later in Hong Kong ex
During his hectic day every man longs to be at home among his own things to relax and reflect. Such an atmosphere is created by beautiful furniture and artistic Oriental rugs. Whether a residence is designed in the modern, spacious style or arranged in a more traditional mode there is hardly any room decor that is not enhanced by an Oriental rug. Rugs of geometric pattern fit well into modern
It is from Central Asia that the oldest evidence of the art of knotted rugs has come. First of all, there are the remains of a rug with a geometric design, tied in the Turkish knot, dating from the first century A.D., that were unearthed by the Turfan expedition to eastern Turkestan. Afterward, in the region of Altai, the almost perfectly preserved Pazyryk rug was discovered; it dates from the
The discovery of the important artistic value of oriental rugs is not recent. As early as the fourteenth century, in fact, the Italian painters gave them a very prominent position in their pictures. In the centuries that followed, they are represented as playing an important part in the life of the period. Rugs were attributes of royalty; they enhanced the significance of religious settings and
History of art begins with the history of mankind. The art of webbing came into being and developed as a product of the human instinct for self-protection. Men invented webbing by using wool the protect himself from adverse climate conditions, just as they developed tools for survival of the species. The art of webbing in ties real sense began when men were able to make use of animals and deve
Bergama, which is an ancient settlement carpet center as well. It still continues as such. Carpets are woven on the Kazak plateau, Yunt Mountain and in some villages of the Yagcibedir clan.
Yagcibedir is a region to the West of Bergama, 1051 meters above sea –level. Carpets and kilims are woven in the villages of Yagcıbedir clan, such as Mazili, Islamlar, Demirciler, Kiroba, Kocaoba and
Other woven objects aside from the carpets with knots, are known as kilim, cicim sili and soumak. The best and widely known kilims in our country are those reflecting a tradition peculiar to themselves. These are woven by sheep-raising nomads, from yarns made either from wool or goat’s hair. These kilims are woven as sacks and saddle-bags for the purpose of carrying provisions, in ornamenting h
Eagle: Symbol of sky and healthy life. Eagle with head turned right symbolizes sanctity and protection.
Water ever: Symbolize the basic material of life; water and cleanliness.
Dragon: A symbol of power and strength either many heads, feet and tails.
Pomegranate: Symbol of plenty and abundance.
Konya appears as an important carpet centrel as Seljuk capital. The carpets produced within this period are now exhibited at the Konya Mevlana Museum and the Istanbul Islamic Arts Museum. Konya still maintains this historic tridition. Kazak, Taskale, Ladik, Karapinar, Sultanhani, Eregli, Obruk, Sille and Sarayonu are the centres of carpet making.
Warm colours, as light brown, brick red
Hereke Turkish carpet art overcame the recession that began in the 18th century, and continued to develop until the 19 th century. After the cloth looms established in Hereke on 1844 by Sultan Abdulmecit, 100 carpet looms have been included on 1891 by Sultan Abdulhamit II.
Carpets woven in Hereke in Izmit shows a mixture of influences having the decorative characteristics mai